Thursday, December 31, 2015

Neottia

**12/31/15**

The neottia, or ladies’-tresses, behind Garfield’s house. The golden robin is now a rare bird to see. Here are the small, lively-tasting blackberries, so small they are not commonly eaten... In Lee’s field are two kinds of plantain. Is the common one found here?  
[...]  
*Apios tuberosa*, or *Glycine Apios*, ground-nut. The prenanthes now takes the place of the lactucas, which are gone to seed.

In the dry ditch, near Abel Minott’s house that was, I see cardinal-flowers, with their red artillery, reminding me of soldiers, – red men, war, and bloodshed. Some are four and a half feet high. Thy sins shall be as scarlet. Is it my sins that I see? It shows how far a little color can go; for the flower is not large, yet it makes itself seen from a afar, and so answers the purpose for which it was colored completely... *Scutellaria lateriflora*, side-flowering skullcap, here. This brook deserves to be called Clematis Brook... for the clematis is very abundant, running over the alders and other bushes on its brink. Where the brook issues from the pond, the nightshade grows profusely, spreading five or six feet each way, with its red berries now ripe.

[Thoreau, *Journal* - 8/20/1851]

*****

**Orioles** ‘love’ oranges and other fresh fruits; also ‘jelly – especially grape jelly!

*****

Graves on the ancestral burial grounds had to be moved due to the Allegheny Reservoir. The archaeological study of the Cornplanter graves was conducted by two graduate students of the University of Buffalo...

When Cornplanter’s burial site was excavated, some expressed concern that no jewelry or medals were found in his casket, as a ceremonial burial had been expected. Merle Deardorff, friend of the Indians and local historian well versed in Indian lore and culture, noted that by 1818 Cornplanter had destroyed all his medals, everything the Americans had given him. By this time Cornplanter had rejected his alliance of many years with the white man. He had become disillusioned with state and federal government; therefore, no symbols that could represent this previously trusted friendship were to be found in his burial site.

[*Kinzua: from Cornplanter to the Corps*]

*****

***Corydalis lutea*** is related to the dicentras... they can grow ‘just about anywhere’... comely foliage and yellow flowers that bloom ‘over an astonishing period’ – what more could one want?... self-sows reliably...

*****

**Asters** will spread slowly by seed and roots... propagation by seed is iffy – many seeds must be broadcast, as the germination rate is ‘not great’... transplanting plants from abundant stands is the best way, it is said...

*****

***Liatris*** can be started from seed in outdoor beds – ‘Fresh seed does not germinate well, but I have had 2 and 3-year-old seed come very well’... Transplant or divide in spring... ‘A faster method is to remove the offsets from the corm-like bases. Curtis and Stiles in Massachusetts have also successfully pulled away the basal leaves with heels and rooted them in 3 to 4 weeks’...

[Edwin F. Steffek]

*****

**Italian Corn Salad**.  
*Valerianella eriocarpa*.

The Italian Corn Salad is a distinct species, and differs from the Common Corn Salad in its foliage, and, to some extent, in its general habit. It is a hardy annual, about eighteen inches high. The radical leaves are pale-green, large, thick, and fleshy, - those of the stalk long, narrow, and pointed; the flowers are small, pale-blue, washed or stained with red; the seeds are of a light-brown color, somewhat compressed, convex on one side, hollowed on the opposite, and retain their vitality five years, - nearly twenty-two thousand are contained in an ounce.

It is cultivated and used in the same manner as the species before described. It is, however, earlier, milder in flavor, and slower in running to seed. The leaves are sometimes employed early in spring as a substitute for Spinach; but their downy or hairy character renders them less valuable for salad purposes than those of some of the varieties of the Common Corn Salad.

[Fearing Burr, *The Field and Garden Vegetables of America*]

*****

»'MASH' Star Wayne Rogers Dies at 82

Chancellor Merkel's New Year address
Chancellor Angela Merkel's annual New Year address from the Chancellery in Berlin.

Things we didn't know last year  
Barack Obama calls David Cameron "bro".  
The first sports bra was made from two jockstraps.  
One in 10 of Britain's train carriages still flush toilet waste straight on to the railway tracks.  
"Let us turn ours into a country of mushrooms by making mushroom cultivation scientific, intensive and industrialised!" is an official slogan of North Korea.  
Quentin Tarantino still records films from TV on VHS cassettes.  
King Arthur may have been Glaswegian.  
A man-sized lobster lived 480 million years ago.  
Michael Jackson made a series of prank calls to Russell Crowe.  
The Queen likes to have her pre-lunch gin and Dubonnet in front of BBC Two's The Daily Politics.  
In September 1944 the New York Times explained pizza to its readers and included a rare use of its plural "pizze"...  
Larry King tweets by calling a dedicated voicemail, which is listened to by an assistant who then transcribes his thought to Twitter.  
The best to drink coffee is about an hour after waking up...  
Most kangaroos are left-handed.  
The word "twerk" dates back to 1820.  
Real Paleolithic people, contrary to some of the followers of the fashionable modern diet named after them, appear to have eaten plenty of carbohydrates.  
Reindeer migration is a major live television event in Norway.  
US Democratic presidential contender Bernie Sanders released a spoken-word folk album in 1987.  
Bill Cosby was the first choice to play Sam Malone in Cheers, ahead of Ted Danson.

Nazi War Criminals Executions (HD Compilation)

Ryan Seacrest, Jenny McCarthy, and Fergie are being inflicted on us, and Dick Clark is powering the proceedings with the energy generated by spinning in his grave as we ring in 2016 with Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin Eve...

Wednesday, December 30, 2015

The Most Inattentive Walker

The most inattentive walker can see how the science of geology took its rise. The inland hills and promontories betray the action of water on their rounded sides as plainly as if the work were completed yesterday. He sees it with but half an eye as he walks, and forgets his thought again. Also the level plains and more recent meadows and marine shells found on the tops of hills. The geologist painfully and elaborately follows out these suggestions, and hence his fine-spun theories.

[Thoreau, *Journal*]

*****

*Thalictrum aquilegifolium* has lavender tufts; blooms early... *Thalictrum rochebrunianum* is ‘my’ favorite meadow rue...

*****

**blue vervain** | *Verbena hastata*  
The genus contains up to 200 species worldwide, including ‘the Burmese teak tree, one of the hardest woods in the world’... the ‘type species’ is *Verbena officinalis*... the Druids included vervain in their ‘lustral water’, their priests gathering it ‘when the dog-star arose from unsunned spots’; after picking it they placed some honey on that very spot in order ‘to make amends for having robbed the earth of so sacred a plant’... priests in early Rome thought the flowers were formed by the ‘tears of Juno’... ‘English peasants in the seventeenth century hung vervain and dill, along with a horseshoe, over doorways to keep the devil out’...

[*Hedgemaids and Fairy Candles*]

*****

**fringed polygala** | *Polygala paucifolia*  
The ‘petals’ merge into a tube, which is fringed at the end; the ‘wing’ is found on either side, and ‘it is from this form that arose the highly-descriptive name of “bird-on-wing” by which I knew it in my childhood’... numerous cleistogamous flowers appear at the bases of the stems... damp, rich, acidic soil it grows in... in a garden setting, a ‘rich oak-leaf soil is ideal and a light mulch of oak leaves should be maintained at all times’... they produce long runners, basically root-free; as such they are difficult to transplant... they can be grown from seed, but ‘it is not easy to locate the seeds’... the best method of propagation is to take cuttings in June, apply rooting hormone, and insert in peat with some sand...

[Edwin F. Steffek]

*****

**CORN SALAD**.   
Fetticus. Lamb's Lettuce. Mâche, of the French. *Valeriana locusta*.

This is a small, hardy, annual plant, said to derive its name from its spontaneous growth, in fields of wheat, in England. It is also indigenous to France and the south of Europe.

When in flower, or fully grown, it is from twelve to fifteen inches in height. The flowers are small, pale-blue; the seeds are rather small, of a yellowish-brown color, unequally divided by two shallow, lengthwise grooves, and will keep six or eight years.

As the peculiar value of Corn Salad lies in its remarkable hardiness, a sowing should be made the last of August or beginning of September, for use during the winter or early in spring; but, if the weather is severe, the plants must be protected by straw or some other convenient material. Early in March, or as soon as the weather becomes a little mild, remove the covering, and the plants will keep the table supplied until the leaves from fresh sowings shall be grown sufficiently for cutting.

Seed. - To raise seed, allow a few plants from the spring sowing to remain without cutting. They will grow up to the height and in the manner before described, and blossom, and ripen their seed during the summer. An ounce of seed will sow a row two hundred feet in length, and about five pounds will be required for an acre.

Use. - The leaves, while young, are used as a salad; and in winter, or early in spring, are considered excellent. They are also sometimes boiled and served as Spinach.

[Fearing Burr, *The Field and Garden Vegetables of America*]

*****

»Michael Moore  
C'mon NRA - don't you support #TamirRice & his right to open carry a toy gun? Chris Hayes - you're a genius.  
Ohio is an open carry state, and the cops say they thought Rice was an adult, so what law, exactly, was he breaking?

@SarahKSilverman Since you like to offend Christians i got 1 for u What's the difference between a Jew and a piece of shit, there is none 😅   
Sarah Silverman  
Okay. And be sure to check out I SMILE BACK  
U ARE 1 FILTHY RACIST BITCH FUCK U AND THE JEWS CHRISTMAS WILL ALWAY EMPOWER YOUR JEWISH HOLIDAYS MERRY CHRISTMAS 😅  
Sarah Silverman  
WWJD

US comedian Bill Cosby charged with sexual assault

Michael Moore  
125 yrs ago today the final battle in the genocide of the American Indians took place at Wounded Knee, with 300 mostly women&kids massacred

Martha Stewart Frying Pans Are Targeting Unsuspecting Gourmands  
Cooking with Martha Stewart just got more riveting...

Pussy Riot Gives Dire Warning About Trump: ‘Everyone Was Joking’ About Putin, Too

TIL a fig tree tricks a certain species of wasp to pollinate it, sends it down a small passage in the fruit where its wings are ripped off, after which it is digested by enzymes. Figs eat wasps.

TIL members of the band "Good Charlotte" protested against KFC's treatment of chickens. Then in 2012 and 2013 appeared in a number of KFC commercials in Australia and even tried to set a world record for eating KFC on "Australia's Got Talent."

How about just eating your daily bread and being grateful for it, you insufferable hipster foodie?

TIL the "Affluenza" drunk driver who killed 4 people drove himself to school at the age 13. When the Head of the school questioned that practice, his father threatened to buy the school.

Tuesday, December 29, 2015

How Many

**12/29/15**

How many things concur to keep a man at home, to prevent his yielding to his inclination to wander! If I would extend my walk a hundred miles, I must carry a tent on my back for shelter at night or in the rain, or at least I must carry a thick coat to be prepared for a change in the weather. So that it requires some resolution, as well as energy and foresight, to undertake the simplest journey. Man does not travel as easily as the birds migrate. He is not everywhere at home, like flies. When I think how many things I can conveniently carry, I am wont to think it most convenient to stay at home.

[Thoreau, *Journal* - 8/19/1851]

*****

If in the first account of creation God made mankind because he wanted an image, the Lord God, in this second account, seems to have made human beings because he wanted company. And the innocent poignancy of his garden call becomes something deeper at Genesis 3:21: ‘And the Lord God made garments of skins for Adam and his wife, and clothed them’. How can this line be read if not as the Lord God’s regret about his regret? Having just inflicted labor in childbearing on her and toil in the fields on him, why should he now spare them the inconvenience of making their own clothing? Why if not because, to speak very simply, he feels bad about it all?

[*God: A Biography*]

*****

***Astilbe***   
The *Astilbe* x *arendsii* hybrids are highly recommended – *Astilbe* x *arendsii* ‘Cattleya’ principally... the latter cultivar is ‘a must-grow plant if your garden is in zones 4–8’... *Astilbe chinensis* ‘Pumila’ is a ground hugger...

*Filipendula purpurea* looks comely when its bed buddies are astilbes; its ‘American cousin’, *Filipendula rubra* (queen of the prairie) needs a bit more sun...

[*The Natural Shade Garden*]

*****

***Oenothera***  
Flowers are pollinated at night principally by miller moths, sphinx moths, and the pink night-moth... Hugo de Vries studied ’em and more or less discovered mutations... in England the common evening primrose (*O. biennis*) has been known as willowherb, king’s cure-all, scurvish, and scabish... ‘mule deer’ and ‘pronghorns’ in your area will hungrily eat it; birds eat the seeds... used as a food plant in England since the 1600s – ‘First-year roots were boiled to create a dish described as both nutritious and sweet, with a taste similar to that of parsnips’... the Germans and French used the young shoots in their salads, ‘and the Germans treated it like scorzonera’... its thing is dry and sandy soils... sowing by seed is idiotically easy...

[*Hedgemaids and Fairy Candles*]

*****

**fireweed** | *Epilobium angustifolium*   
‘One of the most beautiful and striking of all the summer wild flowers’... hardy perennial... grows mostly on ‘newly-cleared land and one of the first to cover the ugly scars of road cuts and forest fires – more than enough to recommend it to any true conservationist’... *Epilobium hirsutum* is the European version – and is ‘not so desirable’ as the native... ‘Fireweeds are easily grown almost anywhere, including the home flower garden, but culture there is not recommended. Such easy living makes them fat, coarse and lazy – completely losing their grace and much of their will to bloom. It is much better when they must fend for themselves and particularly if the location is on the dry, well-drained side’... can be propagated by dividing the mother plant and/or taking root cuttings...

[Edwin F. Steffek]

*****

»Motörhead drummer Mikkey Dee: "Motörhead is over, of course."

On Tuesday, it was revealed by Crime Watch Daily that Glee alum Mark Salling has been arrested for possession of child pornography. Gross!  
It's said the El Lay police department's Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force served the TV heartthrob with a warrant early in the morning.  
How disgusting. We're so shocked by this horrible discovery.

Dude Caught Boning Goat

Motörhead-Frontmann Kilmister stirbt an Krebs | Als er die Diagnose hörte, sagte Lemmy FUCK!

President Barack Obama signs into law a ban on tiny plastic particles used in personal cosmetic products that scientists say are polluting U.S. lakes, rivers and the oceans.

A Catholic priest in the Phillippines delivered a very cool-dad performance at Christmas mass this year, singing and hoverboarding at the same time! After the video went viral on social media, the Diocese of San Pablo suspended the priest for having too much swag.

Monday, December 28, 2015

Fox Hunting, too...

**12/29/15**

Fox-hunting, too, was beloved of the British visitors, and of Southern planters as well. The Middle and Southern states saw frequent meets of mounted gentlemen with hounds, usually at the tavern, to which they returned after the day’s run to end with suitable jollity.

The old English “drift of the forest” became in America a wolf-rout or wolf-drive. Then circles of men and boys were formed to drive in toward the centre of the ring and kill squirrels and hares which pestered the farmers. Then came shooting matches in which every living wild creature was a prey. The extent to which these devastating hunting parties could be carried is shown by an article in a Bedford County (Pennsylvania) newspaper. On Friday, December 4, 1818, about seven hundred men from neighboring townships formed such a party. The signal was first given on French Town Mountain, and the circle of forty miles of horn blowing to horn was completed in fifteen minutes. The hunters progressed to a centre in Wysox township, using guns as long as they could with safety, then bayonets, clubs, poles, pitchforks, etc. Five bears, nine wolves, and fourteen foxes were killed, and three hundred deer—it makes one’s heart ache. It was estimated that more than double the number escaped. The expedition closed with great mirth at the tavern.

[Alice Morse Earle, *Stage-coach and Tavern Days*]

*****

I might make merry over the fact that there are many Bridgets, some say eleven; even as there are three or four St. Patricks; and raise learned doubts as to whether such persons ever existed, after that Straussian method of pseudo-criticism which cometh not from above, from the Spirit of God, nor yet indeed from below, from the sound region of fact, but from within, out of the naughtiness of the heart, defiling a man.  I might weaken, too, the effect of the hymn by going on with the rest of it, and making you smile at its childish miracles and portents; but I should only do a foolish thing, by turning your minds away from the broad fact that St. Bridget, or various persons who got, in the lapse of time, massed together under the name of St. Bridget, were eminently good women.

It matters little whether these legends are historically correct.  Their value lies in the moral of them.  And as for their real historical correctness, the Straussian argument that no such persons existed, because lies are told of them, is, I hold, most irrational.  The falsehood would not have been invented unless it had started in a truth.  The high moral character ascribed to them would never have been dreamed of by persons who had not seen living instances of that character.  Man’s imagination does not create; it only reproduces and recombines its own experience.  It does so in dreams.  It does so, as far as the moral character of the saint is concerned, in the legend; and if there had not been persons like St. Bridget in Ireland, the wild Irish could never have imagined them.

[*The Roman and the Teuton*]

*****

**CORCHORUS**.  
Corette potagère, of the French. *Corchorus olitorius*.

An annual plant from Africa; also indigenous to the West Indies. Stem about two feet high, much branched; leaves deep-green, slightly toothed, varying in a remarkable degree in their size and form, - some being spear-shaped, others oval, and some nearly heart-shaped; leaf-stems long and slender; flowers nearly sessile, small, yellow, five-petaled; seeds angular, pointed, and of a greenish color, - fourteen thousand are contained in an ounce, and they retain their vitality four years.

Soil, Propagation, and Culture. - The plant requires a light, warm soil; and should have a sheltered, sunny place in the garden. It is grown from seed sown annually. The sowing may be made in March in a hot-bed, and the plants set in the open ground in May; or the seed may be sown the last of April, or first of May, in the place where the plants are to remain. The drills, or rows, should be fifteen inches apart, and the plants five or six inches apart in the rows. No further attention will be required, except the ordinary labor of keeping the soil loose and the plants clear from weeds.

Use. - The leaves are eaten as a salad, and are also boiled and served at table in the form of greens or spinach. They may be cut as soon as they have reached a height of five or six inches.

[...commonly known as **Nalta jute**, **tossa jute**, and **Jew's mallow**, is a shrub species in the family Malvaceae. It is the primary source of jute fibre. The leaves and young fruits are used as a vegetable, the dried leaves are used for tea and as a soup thickener, and the seeds are edible.]

[Fearing Burr, *The Field and Garden Vegetables of America*]

*****

I have seen **hardy cyclamen** growing under shallow rooted rhododendrons and maples, especially the late-summer-blooming *Cyclamen hederifolium* or *Cyclamen neapolitanum*. Little pink or white flowers are followed by ivy-shaped leaves mottled with silver, purple, or gray on deep blue-green. The leaves usually disappear in spring. (Hardy cyclamen bulbs have been known to be harvested from the wild, so query your source.)

[*The Natural Shade Garden*]

*****

On October 22, 1960, ground was formally broken for the $119 million Kinzua Dam with a completion date set for 1966.

A traditional Seneca saying is that when the whippoorwill cries in the east, close by the house, some evil will befall the family; when a fox is heard whimpering in the woods, a death will follow.

[*Kinzua: From Cornplanter to the Corps*]

*****

‘In the **fairy** or **zephyr-lilies** (*Zephyranthes*), the amaryllis family has given us some very attractive little plants. Low, bulbous herbs, they are fairly hardy and survive outdoors without protection except in the coldest states’... the grow to a foot in height... leaves are bright green and shiny; flowers white funnels... their natural habitat is ‘damp clearings and rich woods’ as far north as Virginia... propagation is best accomplished by collecting offsets or by carefully dividing the bulbs... the *Zephyranthes* likes, or will tolerate well, an acidic soil...

[Edwin F. Steffek]

*****

❚Meadowlark Lemon, Harlem Globetrotters’ Dazzling Court Jester, Dies at 83

Muslims Make Christmas Dinner for Homeless, Bigots Go Crazy

Ethan Couch, Affluenza Teen, Apprehended Near Puerto Vallarta, Mexico

Motorhead frontman Lemmy dies at age of 70

Madonna und Sohn Rocco (15) | Familienzwist wegen Penis-Gag?

Sunday, December 27, 2015

Nettle

**12/27/15**

The **nettle** family is closely related to hemp and mistletoe... stinging nettle is a native of Asia... spreads rapidly by underground runners... not pollinated by insects... the Scots have long been ‘fans’ of the nettle... Pepys tried nettle porridge once and gave it thumbs-up... the dried foliage can be fed to your cattle and the seeds to your chickens and turkeys... is guaranteed to cure your goitre condition... is guaranteed to ‘drive the devil away’... to cure somebody’s fever, pull up a nettle plant by the roots while uttering that person’s name: fever gone... if a child has poor eyesight, that eyesight can be improved by blowing through a hole in a nettle leaf onto the child’s eye – but, in order to work, the blower had to be a ‘woman who had never seen her father’...

[*Hedgemaids and Fairy Candles*]

⇋ ⇋

Aug. 19 [1851]. *Clematis Virginiana*; calamint; *Lycopus Europeus*, water horehound.

This is a world where there are flowers. Now, at 5 AM, the fog, which in the west looks like a wreath of hard-rolled cotton-batting, is rapidly dispersing. The echo of the railroad whistle is heard the horizon round; the gravel train is starting out. The farmers are cradling oats in some places.

[Thoreau, *Journal*]

⇋ ⇋

**oconee-bells** | *Shortia galacifolia*  
Foliage emerges from creeping rootstocks... ‘It, too, requires a cool, humusy, acid soil, slightly moist but well-drained, some shade, and a protecting mulch’... can survive up New England way if given the stated requirements... don’t bother with seeds – cuttings taken in early summer are the most successful method of propagation...

[Edwin F. Steffek]

⇋ ⇋

**CATERPILLAR**.  
Chenille, of the French

All of the species here described are hardy, annual plants, with creeping or recumbent stems, usually about two feet in length. The leaves are oblong, entire on the borders, broadest near the ends, and taper towards the stem; the flowers are yellow, and quite small; the seeds are produced in caterpillar-like pods, and retain their vitality five years.

Cultivation. - The seeds may be planted in the open ground in April or May; or the plants may be started in a hot-bed, and set out after settled warm weather. The rows should be fifteen inches apart, and the plants twelve or fifteen inches apart in the rows; or the plants may be grown in hills two feet and a half apart, and two or three plants allowed to a hill.

Use. - No part of the plant is eatable; but the pods, in their green state, are placed upon dishes of salads, where they so nearly resemble certain species of caterpillars as to completely deceive the uninitiated or inexperienced.

**Common Caterpillar**.  
*Scorpiurus vermiculata*.

Pod, or fruit, comparatively large. The interior grooves, or furrows, are indistinct, or quite wanting: the exterior grooves are ten in number, and well defined. Along the summit of these furrows are produced numerous, small, pedicelled tubercles, quite similar to those of some species of worms or caterpillars; and these small tufts, in connection with the brownish-green color and peculiar coiling of the pods, make the resemblance nearly perfect, especially if seen from a short distance. The seeds are large, oblong, flattened at the ends, and of a yellowish color. A well-developed fruit will measure about three-eighths of an inch in diameter; and, when uncoiled, nearly an inch and a half in length.

[Fearing Burr, *The Field and Garden Vegetables of America*]


❚Danny Thomas (born Amos Muzyad Yakhoob Kairouz; January 6, 1912 – February 6, 1991) was...  
Margaret Julia "Marlo" Thomas (born November 21, 1937) is...  
Howard Weston Bessell, Jr. (March 20, 1935 – October 6, 1996), known as Ted Bessell, was...  
Lew Parker (October 29, 1910 – October 27, 1972) was...  
Alan William Napier-Clavering (7 January 1903 – 8 August 1988), better known as Alan Napier, was an English actor. After a decade in West End theatres, he had a long film career first in Britain and then in Hollywood. However, Napier became widely known for portraying Alfred the butler in the 1960s live-action Batman television series.  
James Neil Hamilton (September 9, 1899 – September 24, 1984) was a longtime American actor probably best known for his role as Commissioner Gordon on the Batman TV series of the 1960s.  
That Girl Theme last season with vocals  
Season 1 Opening of "That Girl"

Oscar winning cinematographer Haskell Wexler dies at 93

The life of Thomas Doswell, a man who languished for 19 years in prison after being wrongfully convicted of a rape, came to an end Christmas Day when he died of heart failure, according to his family.

If you were planing on traveling to England for some sex tourism, you might want to read this

Not news: Fattest man in the world dies. News: He wasn't a Murican. And, he had a publicist

Saturday, December 26, 2015

Tsonondowanenake

Prior to the arrival of the first European settlers the people who lived on the land that now comprises present-day Kinzua Dam and the Allegheny Reservoir were the Seneca Indians, the western most member nation of the Iroquois Confederacy – also the most numerous and powerful. The Seneca Indians once owned all of the lands in western New York and  portion of the state of Pennsylvania. The Seneca name for themselves is Tsonondowanenaka or Tsonondowaka meaning *People of the Great Hill or Mountain*. Over time the Seneca drifted into two groups, those in the Seneca Lake region and those on the Genesee River and upper Allegheny River. The western most Seneca were called the Chenussio people.

The original five Indian nations of the Iroquois Confederacy were the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk. During the 1720s, the Tuscarora refugees from North Carolina were admitted to the Confederacy as an associate member under the sponsorship of the Oneida; for this reason the Iroquois Confederacy – the League of Five Nations – is also known as the League of Six Nations. The Iroquois also call themselves the Haudenosaunee, the *People of the Longhouse*.

[*Kinzua: From Cornplanter to the Corps*]

⇋ ⇋

*Lentinula edodes* occurs naturally throughout Asia. It is reported from China, Korea, Thailand, Burma, Nepal, North Borneo, the Philippines, Japan and Papua, New Guinea. A similar species, *Lentinula boryana*, occurs in sub-tropical America, throughout Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, the Caribbean Islands, Cuba, Venezuela, Brazil and Costa Rica.

Shiitake’s natural habitat is dead hardwood logs in a warm, moist climate.

⇋ ⇋

**BUCKSHORN PLANTAIN**.  
Star of the Earth. *Plantago coronopus*.

A hardy annual, indigenous to Great Britain, France, and other countries of Europe. The root-leaves are put forth horizontally, and spread regularly about a common centre somewhat in the form of a rosette; the flower-stem is leafless, branching, and from eight to ten inches high; flowers yellow; the seeds are quite small, of a clear, brown color, and retain their power of germination three years, - nearly two hundred and thirty thousand are contained in an ounce.

Soil and Cultivation. - It succeeds best in a soil comparatively light; and the seed should be sown in April. Sow thinly, broadcast, or in shallow drills eight inches apart. When the plants are about an inch high, thin them to three or four inches apart.

Use. - The plant is cultivated for its leaves, which are used as a salad. They should be plucked while still young and tender, or when about half grown.

[Fearing Burr, *The Field and Garden Vegetables of America*]

⇋ ⇋

The great and inherited development of the udders in cows and goats in countries where they are habitually milked, in comparison with these organs in other countries, is probably another instance of the effects of use. Not one of our domestic animals can be named which has not in some country drooping ears; and the view which has been suggested that the drooping is due to disuse of the muscles of the ear, from the animals being seldom much alarmed, seems probable.  
[...]   
From facts collected by Heusinger, it appears that white sheep and pigs are injured by certain plants, while dark-coloured individuals escape: Professor Wyman has recently communicated to me a good illustration of this fact; on asking some farmers in Virginia how it was that all their pigs were black, they informed him that the pigs ate the paint-root (*Lachnanthes*), which coloured their bones pink, and which caused the hoofs of all but the black varieties to drop off; and one of the "crackers" (i.e. Virginia squatters) added, "we select the black members of a litter for raising, as they alone have a good chance of living." Hairless dogs have imperfect teeth; long-haired and coarse-haired animals are apt to have, as is asserted, long or many horns; pigeons with feathered feet have skin between their outer toes; pigeons with short beaks have small feet, and those with long beaks large feet. Hence if man goes on selecting, and thus augmenting, any peculiarity, he will almost certainly modify unintentionally other parts of the structure, owing to the mysterious laws of correlation.

[Charles Darwin, *On the Origin of Species*]

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...for certainly, if any men ever needed to be in the right, lest they should be of all men most miserable, it was these same old hermits.  Praying and preaching continually, they lived on food which dogs would not eat, in dens in which dogs ought not to live.  They had their reasons.  Possibly they knew their own business best.  Possibly also they knew their neighbour’s business somewhat; they knew that such generations as they lived in could not be taught, save by some extravagant example of this kind, some caricature, as it were, of the doctrines which were to be enforced.  Nothing less startling, perhaps, could have touched the dull hearts, have convinced the dull brains, of fierce, ignorant, and unreasoning men.

[*The Roman and the Teuton*]

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***Galax aphylla*** is ‘handsome and desirable’; mat-forming in acid woodland conditions in southern climes... ‘millions’ of the large flower spikes were picked annually for the ‘florist trade’, ‘not half as much harm has resulted as from the building of some roads’... if given its uncompromisable conditions (‘a cool, slightly-moist peaty loam, partial shade, good drainage, sufficient acidity, and a beneficial mulch over the soil’) it is completely hardy up to New England... it ‘likes to ramble’ amongst rhododendrons and azaleas... propagate by taking summer cuttings and root them in a medium of peat and sand; the dust-like seeds sometimes will germinate...

[Edwin Steffek]

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❚@SarahKSilverman FUCK YOU, YOU GOD DAMNED JEW BITCHWHY DONT YOU JUST DIE AND END IT ALL  #EATAGUNPLEASE@FUCKYOU  
Ok, Doll. And check out my movie "I Smile Back" on iTunes/VOD

President Gerald R. Ford, who gently led the U.S. out of the Watergate era, died on Dec. 26, 2006.

Sylvia Allen, the GOP state Senator from Snowflake, AZ, believes the Earth is 6,000 years old. She will run the state Senate's committee to oversee educational legislation.  
Allen also believes in chemtrails and mandatory church attendance.

Friday, December 25, 2015

Knurly Apple

The *Oenothera biennis* along the railroad now. Do the cars disperse seeds? The *Trichostema dichotomum* is quite beautiful now in the cool of the  morning. The epilobium in the woods still. Now the earliest apples begin to be ripe, but none are so good to eat as some to smell. Some knurly apple which I pick up in the road reminds me by its fragrance of all the wealth of Pomona.

[Thoreau, *Journal* - 8/9/1851]

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**Mushroom cultivation** attempts to control a natural process by manipulating environmental factors. The science of cultivation involves thoroughly understanding these factors and their effects on mushroom growth. However, sensing what changes are needed and applying this information remains an art.

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**Cardinal flowers** growing along streams and in wet meadows ‘shock passersby’ with its brilliant red color... after decades of being picked it is currently rare if not endangered... short-lived perennial; seeds are said to have a good germination rate.... like its close relative, Ol’ Syph, the mother plant ‘sends out little shoots that, in their first year, rise only as basal rosettes of leaves. The next year, these shoots mature to flowering plants three to four feet high. Left alone, a fairly good-sized colony can establish itself by shoots and seed’... **Indian tobacco** (*Lobelia inflata*) 'was once widely known as a medicinal herb. Even though grazing animals will not touch it... and the plant sometimes proves poisonous, quacks of the last century concocted potions from it because it was believed that anything that set the insides on fire was beneficial to health'... some Native American medical practitioners prescribed this plant for treating breast cancer, sore eyes, and 'coughs'... the Creeks used it against ghosts... 'About its only real value was as an emetic, whence it picked up such unappetizing names as vomitroot, puke weed, and gagroot'... a 'Canadian farmer' told an 'interviewer' back in 18 and 79, that 'if yer ever wants to get rid of what's inside yer, jist make a tea of lobelia leaves and I'll bet my team of hosses out there it'll accommodate you'... cardinal flower itself was at one time known as red Betty, slinkweed, and hog's physic...

[*Hedgemaids and Fairy Candles*]

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**bog laurel** | *Kalmia polifolia*  
‘A small straggling shrub’ with *two-edged twigs*... leaves are narrow and rolled under at edges... loves the bogs, peaty soil, and upland swamps... its bog buddies include cottongrass, Labrador tea, and arethusas...

**fetter-bush** | **drooping Leucothoe** | *Leucothoe editorum*  
A handsome fella from old Virginie down to Georgia... to 6 ft. ... same habitat as last... leaves are shiny, leathery, sharp, and turn bronze-red in fall... ‘It is a good shrub for underplanting trees. It doesn’t like sunny, windy places and moves better in the early spring than at other seasons’... these 2 species may be propagated by seed (slow), layering, or air-layering...

[Edwin F. Steffek]

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**BROOK-LIME**
American Brook-lime. Marsh Speedwell. *Veronica beccabunga*.

Brook-lime is a native of this country, but is also common to Great Britain. It is a hardy perennial, and grows naturally in ditches, and streams of water, but is rarely cultivated. The stem is from ten to fifteen inches in height, thick, smooth, and succulent, and sends out roots at the joints, by which the plant spreads and is propagated; the leaves are opposite, oval, smooth, and fleshy; the flowers are produced in long bunches, are of a fine blue color, and stand upon short stems, - they are more or less abundant during most of the summer, and are followed by heart-shaped seed-vessels, containing small, roundish seeds.

Cultivation. - It may be propagated by dividing the roots, and setting the plants in wet localities, according to their natural habit. It will thrive well when grown with Water-cress.

Use. - The whole plant is used as a salad, in the same manner and for the same purposes as Water-cress. It is considered an excellent anti-scorbutic.

[Fearing Burr, *The Field and Garden Vegetables of America*]

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❚James Brown, the "Godfather of Soul," died on Dec. 25, 2006

Heartwarming: American And ISIS Forces Came Together To Celebrate Christmas

The Queen has used her Christmas Day address to speak of light triumphing over the dark in a year that has seen "moments of darkness".  
It comes after a year which has seen a number of terror attacks, including mass shootings in Paris and the killing of 39 people at a Tunisian resort.   
During the broadcast, the Queen acknowledged the birth of Princess Charlotte, her fifth great-grandchild.  
She also made a light-hearted reference to her forthcoming 90th birthday.  
Reflecting on the past year, the Queen described the festive period as "a time to remember all that we have to be thankful for".  
Sitting at a desk in Buckingham Palace's 18th Century Room, she said: "It is true that the world has had to confront moments of darkness this year, but the Gospel of John contains a verse of great hope, often read at Christmas carol services: 'The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.'"

Christmas card addressed to 'England' reaches right person  
..."My wife and I are absolutely shocked but this puts posties at five or six stars and top of the tree for me this Christmas."

O du Knackige! | Das Nackig-Jahr von Miley Cyrus  
Huch, die ist ja nackt! Miley Cyrus backstage fotografiert für das „V Magazine“

Houston, wir haben ein Müll-Problem!

Slough man stabbed to death in Christmas Eve bloodbath by ‘friend’

Anna Pavord: 'Admire the bark of a beech tree in winter'  
Take a winter walk in the Chilterns in Buckinghamshire, or head for Hampshire, the South Downs in Sussex, or the Cotswolds in Gloucestershire, says our gardening correspondent